About Unitarian Universalism
Unitarian Universalism’s Principles and Sources
Unitarian Universalist member congregations affirm and promote seven Principles:
- The inherent worth and dignity of every person;
- Justice, equity, and compassion in human relations;
- Acceptance of one another and encouragement to spiritual growth in our congregations;
- A free and responsible search for truth and meaning;
- The right of conscience and the use of the democratic process within our congregations and in society at large;
- The goal of world community with peace, liberty, and justice for all;
- Respect for the interdependent web of all existence of which we are a part.
The living tradition which we share draws from many Sources:
- Direct experience of that transcending mystery and wonder, affirmed in all cultures, which moves us to a renewal of the spirit and an openness to the forces which create and uphold life;
- Words and deeds of prophetic women and men which challenge us to confront powers and structures of evil with justice, compassion, and the transforming power of love;
- Wisdom from the world’s religions which inspires us in our ethical and spiritual life;
- Jewish and Christian teachings which call us to respond to God’s love by loving our neighbors as ourselves;
- Humanist teachings which counsel us to heed the guidance of reason and the results of science, and warn us against idolatries of the mind and spirit.
- Spiritual teachings of Earth-centered traditions which celebrate the sacred circle of life and instruct us to live in harmony with the rhythms of nature.
A Brief History of Unitarian Universalism
Unitarian Universalism emerged from two separate religious denominations – Unitarianism and Universalism. Both of these denominations started in Europe hundreds of years ago. The Universalist Church of America was founded by 1793, and the American Unitarian Association by 1825. In 1961, these denominations consolidated to form the new religion of Unitarian Universalism.
Originally, all Unitarians were Christians who did not believe in the Holy Trinity of God (Father, Son, and Holy Ghost). Instead, they believed in the unity, or single aspect, of God. Unitarianism eventually began to stress the importance of rational thinking, each person’s direct relationship with God, and the humanity of Jesus.
Unitarians have been very influential throughout American history, especially in politics and literature. Some famous Unitarians include Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams, Louisa May Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Paul Revere, President William Howard Taft, and Frank Lloyd Wright.
While Unitarian beliefs have been around since soon after the death of Jesus, people did not form religious groups based on these ideas until the middle of the 1500s in Transylvania and the middle of the 1600s in England. The religious authorities of the times saw these early Unitarians as heretics and often persecuted them. Important figures from this period in Unitarian history include John Biddle, Francis David, Michael Servetus, King John Sigismund, and Faustus Socinus.
Unitarianism flourished in the religious freedom of early America. By 1825, Unitarian ministers had formed a Unitarian denomination called the American Unitarian Association (AUA). Speaking out on issues such as peace, education reform, prison reform, orphanages, capital punishment, moderation in temperance, ministry to the poor, and the abolition of slavery, the AUA’s liberal voice was soon heard throughout the country. Influential Unitarians from this era included William Ellery Channing, Theodore Parker, Joseph Priestly, and Thomas Starr King, who was also a Universalist.
American Unitarianism went through many changes over the next 150 years, from the introduction of Transcendentalist thought in the middle of the 1800s, through debates about war and pacifism during the U.S. Civil War and the two World Wars, to the influx of Humanism in the early 1930s. These changes slowly made Unitarianism a broader and more flexible faith.
Universalists are Christians who believe in universal salvation. They don’t believe that a loving God could punish anyone to hell for eternity. Instead, they believe that everyone will be reconciled with God eventually.
While Universalist beliefs have been proclaimed for thousands of years, starting with Origen in 200 CE and continuing through to James Relly in the 1600s, the faith did not have the opportunity to form into a widespread religious movement until English Universalists came to America in the late 1700s to escape religious persecution. Because of its loving and inclusive doctrine, Universalism quickly became popular throughout the United States, especially in rural areas and the expanding western states. The Universalist denomination, called the Universalist Church of America, was formed by 1793. Universalists including Hosea Ballou, John Murray, and Benjamin Rush helped to spread and develop their faith’s teachings throughout the denomination’s early years.
Universalists have been influential throughout American history. Some famous Universalists include Clara Barton, Olympia Brown, Thomas Starr King, Horace Greeley, George Pullman, Mary Livermore, and Benjamin Rush.
Universalists were best known for supporting education and non-sectarian schools, but they also worked on social issues, including the separation of church and state, prison reform, capital punishment, the abolition of slavery, and women’s rights. In 1863, the Universalists became the first group in the United States to ordain a woman with full denominational authority.
The Civil War unfortunately destroyed many Universalist churches and killed many Universalist ministers who had served as chaplains for the armies. Soon after, a softer approach to the idea of damnation became popular throughout the United States in the mid-to-late 1800s, making the Universalist denomination less unique in its teachings. The denomination struggled for many years as membership waned.
About Unitarian Universalism
After growing increasingly theologically and ethically close, the Unitarian and Universalist denominations consolidated in 1961 to form the new religion of Unitarian Universalism. Unitarian Universalism no longer solely holds traditional Unitarian or Universalist beliefs, but does draw directly on its heritage for much of its inspiration and grounding. Well-known Unitarian Universalists include Tim Berners-Lee, Paul Newman, Christopher Reeve, May Sarton, Pete Seeger, and Kurt Vonnegut.
Since 1961, Unitarian Universalism has followed in the footsteps of its Unitarian and Universalist heritages to provide a strong voice for social justice and liberal religion. Within a very few years of the new religion’s forming, Unitarian Universalists’ voices were already heard nationwide, advocating for the rights of conscientious objectors to the war in Vietnam as well as for voting and civil rights for people of color in the south.
Many members of our faith responded to Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s call to witness and participate in the voting rights march in Selma, Alabama in 1965. Unitarian Universalists James Reeb and Viola Liuzzo were killed because of their participation in this protest, and ended up becoming martyrs of the movement.
Unitarian Universalists deepened our social justice work in the 1970s by actively supporting the rights of gay and lesbian people, publishing the Pentagon Papers, and working within our denomination to support feminism and to combat racism and oppression.
The 1980s began more than a decade of denominational spiritual reflection which resulted in reframing our religious principles and acknowledging the shared sources of our faith.
Unitarian Universalists spoke out against our country’s aggression when the first Gulf War started in 1991 and again ten years later when the US entered hostilities in Afghanistan and Iraq. Unitarian Universalists continue to protest unjust wars and unnecessary violence today.
In 2001, the denomination marked the point at which there were more female Unitarian Universalist ministers than male ministers. Unitarian Universalism continues to encourage women’s leadership in our congregations and the larger community.
Another issue which remains at the forefront of the Unitarian Universalist community is marriage equality (also known as same-sex marriage). Unitarian Universalism fully supports the right of all committed couples to marry. Unitarian Universalist congregations, individuals, and the UUA staff continue to work to have these marriages legally sanctioned in every state.
In addition to working on these and other social justice issues, Unitarian Universalism has grappled with a number of spiritual changes over the years since its founding. Some of the major debates have included reframing our religious principles, understanding the changing role of Christianity in today’s Unitarian Universalism, acknowledging the sources of our faith and making room in those sources for earth-based spirituality, and coming to understand what religious and spiritual language works best in our congregations.
Together, we will nurture our spirits and help heal our world.